That gut microbiota imbalance may contribute in some/most parts in development or process of gastrointestinal diseases.
And gut microbiota imbalance may also impact other organs/systems.
Gut microbiota systemic translocation and associated diseases. A: microbiota translocation occurs as the result of an internal cause, such as impaired microvilli function. Damaged microvilli limit intestinal motility in the gut, promoting the translocation of bacteria from the colon to the small intestine, causing small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).
SIBO facilitates the entrance of some of the displaced microbiota members into the bloodstream by breaching the endothelial barrier, causing complications outside of the gastrointestinal tract. B: external injury (e.g., burn injury or inflammation introduced from a high-fat diet) causes stress on the body, resulting in gut microbiota translocation due to a “leaky gut” (see inset). Translocation and resultant endotoxemia promote further systemic complications and increase the probability of damage to remote organ systems.
The complex web of gut microbiota contributions to host physiology. Different gut microbiota components can affect many aspects of normal host development, while the microbiota as a whole often exhibits functional redundancy. In gray are shown members of the microbiota, with their components or products of their metabolism. In white are shown their effects on the host at the cellular or organ level. Black ellipses represent the affected host phenotypes. Only some examples of microbial members/components contributing to any given phenotype are shown.
AMP, antimicrobial peptides; DC, dendritic cells; Gm−, Gram negative; HPA, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal; Iap, intestinal alkaline phosphatase; PG, peptidoglycan; PSA, polysaccharide A.